Edwin Hubble

Edwin Hubble

Edwin Hubble

Born         :       20 November, 1889

Died          :        28 September, 1953

Field         :        Astronomy

Work       :         Discovering Cosmos,

Hubble series


After a short stint teaching in Indiana, Hubble returned to the University of Chicago to study astronomy. Not long after, he was recruited by California’s Mount Wilson Observatory to help complete the construction of its Hooker telescope. Before beginning the new position—which he excitedly accepted—Hubble completed a doctorate in astronomy, enlisted in the U.S. Army and served a tour of duty in World War I.

While working at Mount Wilson, Hubble proved that other galaxies existed outside of the Milky Way, where Earth is located, by taking photos through the observatory’s Hooker telescope and comparing the varying degrees of luminosity among Cepheid variable stars. There had been no clear idea of the Milky Way’s size at the time, and through his research, Hubble was able to estimate that the Andromeda Nebula (thought of simply as a spiral at the time) was nearly 900,000 light years away from the Milky Way, thus it had to be its own galaxy. The Andromeda Nebula was later proven to be much farther away, at nearly 2.48 million light years (through further analyses of the spacial indications of stars’ light). The Andromeda Nebula has was also renamed the Andromeda Galaxy.

In the early mid-1920s, Hubble began conducting new research, along with fellow astronomer Milton Humason, on the galaxies’ spectral shifts and unique distances, particularly looking at their relationship with the earth.


Charles Darwin

A portrait of Charles Darwin

A portrait of Charles Darwin


Born      :     12 february, 1809

Died       :     19 April, 1882

Field      :      Natural history, Geology
Charles Robert Darwin is one of the most influential naturalists of all time. His primary area of expertise is the development of species over time. Darwin established that all species have common ancestors and developed over time due to natural selection and the survival of the fittest.

Natural selection is Darwin’s most famous theory; it states that evolutionary change comes through the production of variation in each generation and differential survival of individuals with different combinations of these variable characters. Individuals with characteristics which increase their probability of survival will have more opportunities to reproduce and their offspring will also benefit from the heritable, advantageous character. So over time these variants will spread through the population.

For natural selection to work, it has to occur along with a bunch of other things. Historians and biologists who have analysed Darwin’s work, for example Ernst Mayr, have identified five theories which Darwin outlined in On the Origin of Species, and which work together to bring about evolution.

Darwin’s five theories were:

  1. Evolution: species come and go through time, while they exist they change.
  2. Common descent: organisms are descended from one, or several common ancestors and have diversified from this original stock
  3. Species multiply: the diversification of life involves populations of one species diverging until they become two separate species; this has probably occurred billions of times on earth!
  4. Gradualism: evolutionary change occurs through incremental small changes within populations; new species are not created suddenly.
  5. Natural selection: evolutionary change occurs through variation between individuals; some variants give the individual an extra survival probability.




A portrait of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

  • Picture:

A portrait of Albert Einstein


  • Born: –   14 March 1879
  • Death:-   18 April 1955 (aged 76)
  • Field: -    Physics
  • Works: -
  1. General relativity and special relativity
  2. Photoelectric Effect
  3. Mass Energy Equivalence
  4. Theory of Brownian Motion
  5. Einstein Field Equations
  6. Bose- Einstein Statistics
  7. Bose Einstein Condensate
  8. Unified Field Theory
  9. EPR Paaradax


1) General Relativity-

index  General relativity, or the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton’s law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present.Einstein’s theory has important astrophysical implications. For example, it implies the existence of black hole—regions of space in which space and time are distorted in such a way that nothing, not even light, can escape—as an end-state for massive stars. There is ample evidence that the intense radiation emitted by certain kinds of astronomical objects is due to black holes

2)  Photoelectric Effect-

pelec   In the photoelectric effect, electrons are emitted from atoms when they absorb energy from light. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called photoelectrons.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered that electrodes illuminated with ultraviolet light create electric sparks more easily. In 1905 Albert Einstein published a paper that explained experimental data from the photoelectric effect as being the result of light energy being carried in discrete quantized packets. This discovery led to the quantum revolution. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for “his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

The photoelectric effect requires photons with energies from a few electronvolts to over 1 MeV in high atomic number elements.

3)  Mass Energy Equivalence -

matter-and-energy-Physics-e=mc2  In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of an object or system is a measure of its energy content.

The equivalence is described by the famous equation:

E = mc^2 \,\!

where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light. Thus, this mass–energy relation states that the universal proportionality factor between equivalent amounts of energy and mass is equal to the speed of light squared.

4)  Theory of Brownian Motion -

Brownian motion or pedesis  is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the quick atoms or molecules in the gas or liquid. The term “Brownian motion” can also refer to the mathematical model used to describe such random movements, which is often called a particle theory.

This transportation phenomenon is named after the botanist Robert Brown. In 1827, while looking through a microscope at particles found in pollen grains in water, he noted that the particles moved through the water but was not able to determine the mechanisms that caused this motion. Atoms and molecules had long been theorized as the constituents of matter, and many decades later, Albert Einstein published a paper in 1905 that explained in precise detail how the motion that Brown had observed was a result of the pollen being moved by individual water molecules. This explanation of Brownian motion served as definitive confirmation that atoms and molecules actually exist, and was further verified experimentally by Jean Perrin in 1908. Perrin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1926 “for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter”.

5)  Einstein Field Equations -

he Einstein field equations (EFE) or Einstein’s equations are a set of 10 equations in Albert Einsteins general theory of relativity which describe the fundamental interactions of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by matter and energy. First published by Einstein in 1915 as a tensor equation, the EFE equate local spacetime curvature with the local energy and momentum within that spacetime.

Similar to the way that electromagnetic fields are determined using charges and currents via Maxwell’s equation, the EFE are used to determine the spacetime geometry resulting from the presence of mass-energy and linear momentum, that is, they determine the metric tensor of spacetime for a given arrangement of stress–energy in the spacetime.

6)  Bose- Einstein Statistics -

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equillibrium. The aggregation of particles in the same state, which is a characteristic of particles obeying Bose–Einstein statistics, accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and the frictionless creeping of superfluid helium. The theory of this behaviour was developed (1924–25) by Satyendra Nath Bose, who recognized that a collection of identical and indistinguishable particles can be distributed in this way. The idea was later adopted and extended by Albert Einstein in collaboration with Bose.

7)  Unified Field Theory -

Since the 19th century, some physicists have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for the fundamental forces of nature – a unified field theory. Classical unified field theories are attempts to create a unified field theory based on classical physics. In particular, unification of gravitation and electromagnetism was actively pursued by several physicists and mathematicians in the years between World War I and World War II. This work spurred the purely mathematical development of differential geometry. Albert Einstein is the best known of the many physicists who attempted to develop a classical unified field theory.

8)  EPR Paaradax -

The EPR paradox is an early and influential critique leveled against quantum mechanics. Albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (known collectively as EPR) designed a thought experiment intended to reveal what they believed to be inadequacies of quantum mechanics. To that end, they hypothesized a consequence of quantum mechanics that its supporters had not noticed but looked unreasonable at the time.

Gate of Hell




The 70 meters diameter hole in Turkmenistan is throwing out fire from the last 40 years or even more. In 1970, a group of geologists started mining here to find out a source of petroleum gas which was supposed to be present there. At that time they came to know that there is a big cave beneath the ground. During mining, a large part of the ground slides down which took with it all the machineries and the base camp. The cave was completely filled with poisonous gas. The geologists thought that this gas will be emptied within few days. So the next day, they put fire in the cave. But unfortunately, there prediction regarding the quantity of gas present there proved to be completely wrong. Till now the gas has not been emptied and the fire is still raging hard.

Dish antenna



The bulky dish antennas of early past

The bulky dish antennas of early past


Most of you have seen the large and bulky dish antennas (satellite antennas) which are used to broadcast cable networks during the 90’s decade. All those are now considered as history. Now is the time of smaller, compact and cheaper dish antennas that can be set up at individual levels. One can see these small UFO shaped circular discs in terraces and on roofs of many buildings. Even if they are small, they are more powerful than the bigger antennas of the 90’s.

The work of the dish antennas is to catch the radio waves transmitted by the television station and deliver them to your television sets with the help of a media called the set-top-box. If earth would have been a plain surface, then these signals would have easily covered a distance of around 2000 kilo meters. But due to the circular shape of the earth, we require additional satellites to help transmit these signals.

The telecast of serials and cinemas are transmitted in the form of radio waves from the television station. These radio signals are first transferred to the geostationary satellite in space. From geostationary satellite, these signals are transferred to the DBS provider broadcast

The smaller antennas that can be installed at individual levels.

The smaller antennas that can be installed at individual levels.

center (companies providing dish services). From the DBS center, these waves are again transferred to the geostationary satellite from where these radio waves are transferred to the dish antennas on your home. The dish antenna catches these signals and sends them to the set top box. The set top box decodes these signals and hence we are able to view the television telecast at home.

Charles Augustus Lindbergh

Charles Augustus LIndbergh

Charles Augustus LIndbergh

The superhero among American citizen, Charles Augustus Lindbergh was a courageous pilot, soldier and also a social worker. Lindbergh was born on 4th February, 1902 in Detroit city of Michigan State. He was a pilot in post service. He was not so popular till 25 years of his age. But after a single heart-staking stunt, he reached the maximum height of popularity in the nation.
On 20th may, 1927 he participated in “Aurteg Prize solo non-stop flight”. He used an aircraft named”Spirit of Saint Louise” which had a single seat and a single engine based on Rayon monoplane type. He traveled non-stop for two days covering a distance of 3600 miles (5800 kilo meters). He reached the Laborgate field air-port, Paris on 29th may. He was the first American and also the first man in the world to cross the Atlantic Ocean without stopping. In the period from 1920 to 1930, Lindbergh suggested many new ways to improve commercial and postal flights in America. For his exemplary flight of two days and the work he has done as a pilot, he was awarded “MEDAL OF HONOR”.

Lindbergh standing in front of Spirit of Saint Louis

Lindbergh standing in front of Spirit of Saint Louis

Lindbergh opposed the American involvement in world war2. But after the Japanese attack on American Navy Base in Pearl Harbor, he decided and worked as an adviser for the pilots of the fighter planes. To raise funds for battleship purpose, he started auctioning parts of the aircraft’s he used. He was very fond of taking parts in social works. He was awarded with many honors.
He was a true hero of the Americans till his last breath and since then forever. On 26th August 1974, Charles Lindbergh died due to cancer in his house on Hawaii islands. He was 72 years old at that time.

Toni Ja


Toni jaa in action

Toni jaa in action

Real name of Toni ja is Tatchakom Yereen. Toni Ja belongs to Thailand. He is a Martial Artist, dancer, stuntman, actor, director and a role model for not only Asian but Western youths. Toni Ja born in a village named Isaan in the Sureen region of Thailand. This village is at a distance of 200 kilo meters from the capital city of Bangkok. Ton is very much influenced by Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan. At the age of 15, he became an expert in Taykwando and Muy Thai (A type of Thailand’s cultural martial arts). He even he even learned Ikido (Japanese Samurai techniques) and jijutsu. He learned the stunts under Panna, who is a director.

Toni Ja got the leading role in the mivie “Ong- Bak”, which was completely a “Stunt-astic” movie in which he performed Muy Baran (ancient form of Muy-Thai). ”Ong-Bak” turned out to be a superhit movie. After this ton never turned back. After Ong-Bak, Tom Yam Gung (American Bodygaurd), Ong-Bak 2, The Beginning, Tom Yam Gung-2 are some of his other superhit movies. The specialty of his movies is that he never uses any computer techniques to do his stunts. He do it all by himself.

images Some of Toni Ja’s special stunts includes – climbing the elephants back from its trunk, various physical activities on elephants back and jumping from one tree to the other. He often met accidents while performing all these difficult stunts. His backbone, hands, legs and ribs have broken several times. Toni Ja is also an master of Martial Arts like that of Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan.

The Great Wall of China


downloadThe Great Wall of China is considered to be as one of the biggest wonders of the world. It was declared as world heritage by UNESCO in the year 1987. This great wall appears as a huge dragon which crosses over the Grade warn Plateau, large forest ground, desert and many more difficult places where construction might be very difficult. From the Eastern to Western China, it has a length of about 8851 kilo meters. It has seen a history of about 2000 years. Some part of it has fallen down, but still it stands as one of the most beautifully built structure which makes it stands still even now.

The giant, GIANT WHEEL

The giant, GIANT WHEEL

A view of the Singapore Flyer

A view of the Singapore Flyer

The “Singapore Flyer” of Singapore is known to be the biggest giant wheel in the world. It was build during the years 2005-2008. The makers of this wheel call it an observation wheel. The height of this wheel measures the height of a 42 storied building, a total of 165 meters. It is 5 meters more than the Chinese “Star of Nanchang” and 30 meters more than the “London Eye”. One can see the entire city as well as the nearby Indonesian islands from the topmost position of this wheel.

The biggest Axe


The biggest axe is built in the Banswick state of Canada on a road side. It is 15 meters in height and has a weight of 55 tons. The blades of this axe bear a width of 7 meters. The concrete base of the axe has a base of 10 meters. The Woods Talk company built it in the year 1991.


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